SỔ TAY NGƯỜI HỌC TIẾNG ANH PHÁP LÝ Chương IIII: Giới từ trong lĩnh vực tiếng Anh Pháp lý
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Giới từ + (the/a) law 1. Above 2. Against 3. By 4. Under the law 5. Under a/these 6. Within
1. Above the law: Đứng trên luật
Ví dụ No one is above the law. Don’t think you are above the law. She acts as if she’s above the law. The judgement underlines the point that nobody, not even the executive, is above the law.
2. Against the law: Trái luật, phạm luật
Ví dụ Stealing is against the law. That’s against the law. In Sweden, it is against the law to hit a child. Child recruitment is against the law in Nepal. It is against the law to discriminate against someone because of their race or sex. It is against the law for children to work before they are fifteen. What you did was clearly against the law.
3. By law: Theo luật
Ví dụ Chilren not admitted – by law. British schools are now required by law to publish their exam results. Employers are required by law to provide a safe working environment. The wearing of seatbelt in cars is required by law. By law, a company like British Gas has to hold a meeting of its shareholders once a year.
4. Under the law: Dưới pháp luật
Ví dụ The Constitution specifies that all people are equal under the law.
5. Under a law/these laws: Theo một điều luật/theo những điều luật này
Ví dụ Persons convicted under these laws can receive up to two years’imprisonment.
6. Within the law: Đúng luật
Law + giới từ
1. Law on: Điều luật về
2. Law against: Điều luật phản/chống đối
Ví dụ A local law against keeping horses Laws against sex discrimination and increased support for child care helped open up the workplace to women.
Cụm giới từ
1. According to 2. In accordance with 3. Pursuant to 4. Subject to 5. Without prejudice to 6. With prejudice 7. Without prejudice 8. In the event that/in the event of 9. In case/in case of 10. As of: 11. Due to 12. Owing to
1. According to: Theo (nguồn tin)
Ví dụ According to the bylaws, the board of directors has five members.
2. In accordance with: Tuân thủ, tuân theo, theo đúng (luật, điều luật) Ví dụ The decision to declare a dividend was adopted by the board of directors in accordance with bylaws.
3. Pursuant to: Chiếu theo, căn cứ theo
Ví dụ This bid is submitted pursuant to the laws of New York State. A complaint was made pursuant to section 13 of the Act of 1987.
4. Subject to: Tuân theo, dựa theo, dưới quyền của ai
5. Without prejudice to: Không xâm hại, không gây thương tổn đến ai
6. With prejudice: Không cho quyền kiện Dismiss(al) with prejudice: Bác bỏ nhưng không cho quyền kiện trở lại
Ví dụ All pending lawsuits between the two companies will be dismissed with prejudice.
8. In the event that/in the event of: Nếu điều gì đó xảy ra
Ví dụ In the event that deficiencies in the Equipment become evident, such deficiencies shall be corrected by ABC during the two days per week during which the Purchaser will not be testing. In the event of an accident, call this number.
9. In case/in case of
10. As from/of: Từ, tính từ + thời điểm/ngày tháng
Ví dụ The new land on employment is in force as from/of midnight tonight. We shall have a new address as from/of 12 May.
11. Due to: Do ai, cái gì/vì ai, cái gì
Ví dụ The office is closed tomorrow due to a public holiday.
12. Owing to: Do ai, cái gì/vì ai, cái gì
Động từ + giới từ
1. Abide by: Làm theo/tuân theo cái gì
Ví dụ You’ll have to abide by the rules of the club. We will abide by their decision.
2. Accuse sb of sth: Buộc tội ai * Be accused of sth: Bị buộc tội
Ví dụ The police accused him of cheating/theft. * He was accused of cheating/theft.
3. Acquit sb of sth: Tha bổng cho ai * Be acquitted of sth: Được tha bổng, được trắng án
Ví dụ The jury acquitted him of murder. To her relief, she was acquitted of all the charges laid against her.
4. Appeal to sth against sth: Chống án
Ví dụ She appealed to the high court against her sentence.
5. Arrest sb for (doing) sth: Bắt ai vì (đã) làm gì * Be arrested for (doing sth): Bị bắt vì (đã) làm gì
Ví dụ Police arrested them for their dangerous driving. * They were arrested for their dangerous driving.
6. Behead sb with: Chặt đầu ai đó bằng
Ví dụ The executioner beheaded him with an axe.
7. Bequeath sth to sb: Để cái gì lại cho ai
Ví dụ She bequeathed everything to him.
8. Blackmail sb (into doing sth): Hăm dọa ai
Ví dụ Don’t you think you can blackmail me (into doing what you want). I’ll report you to the police.
9. Book sb for sth: Ghi tên phạt ai vì tội gì * Be booked for sth: Bị ghi tên phạt vì tội gì
Ví dụ The police booked me for speeding. I was booked for speeding.
10. Charge sb with sth: Buộc ai tội gì * Be charged of: Bị buộc tội
Ví dụ The police charged him with theft. He was charged with theft.
11. Cheat sb out of sth: Lừa gạt ai để lấy cái gì
Ví dụ He accused of his employer of deliberately trying to cheat him out of his redundancy money.
12. Clear sb of sth: Chứng minh ai vô tội * Be cleared of sth: Được chứng minh là vô tôi
Ví dụ The lawyer cleared him of the charge. She was cleared of all charges against her. 13. Convict sb of sth: Kết tội ai, kết án ai * Be convicted of: Bị kết tội
14. Detain sb for sth: Giam giữ ai
Ví dụ The police detained two men for questioning.
15. Deter sb from (doing) sth: Ngăn ngừa ai làm gì
Ví dụ We may deter other from doing the same thing.
16. Defraud sb of sth: Lừa gạt ai cái gì
Ví dụ She defrauded her brother of his share of the land. She defrauded her employers of thousands of pounds.
17. Extort sth (money) from sb: Tống tiền ai
Ví dụ He extorted the money from her by threats and blackmail Smith was arrested on suspicion of having extorted property and money from at least 18 clients.
18. Legislate for/against/on sth: Xây dựng luật để chống lại
Ví dụ The government will legislate against discrimination in the workplace.
19. Fine sb for sth: Phạt tiền ai * Be fined for sth: Bị phạt tiền
Ví dụ They fined him heavily for the offence. He was fined for speeding.
20. Pick sb up for sth: Bắt ai để làm gì
Ví dụ The police picked him up last night for questioning.
21. Punish sb for sth: Phạt ai về điều gì * Be punished for sth: Bị phạt về điều gì
Ví dụ His father punished him for stealing. * He was punished for stealing.
22. Rob sb of sth: Cướp ai cái gì * Be robbed of sth: Bị cướp cái gì
Ví dụ The bandits robbed us of all our money. We were robbed of all our money.
23. Sentence sb to: Tuyên án ai, kết án ai * Be sentenced to: Bị kết án
Ví dụ They sentenced him to three years’imprisonment. He was sentenced to three years’imprisonment.
24. Suspect sb of sth: Nghi ngờ ai làm điều gì
Ví dụ What made you suspect her of having taken the money? Who do the police suspect (of the crime)?
25. Swindle sb out of sth/sth out of sb: Lừa ai cái gì
Ví dụ They swindled him out of hundreds of dollars/hundreds of dollars out of him.
Tính từ + giới từ
1. Based on: Dựa vào, có nền tảng từ
Ví dụ In some respects, European law is based more on case law than on statute.
2. Entitled to: Có quyền
Ví dụ He is entitled to compensation.
3. Guilty of : Phạm tội
Ví dụ He was guilty of theft.
4. Innocent of: Vô tội
Ví dụ She was innocent of the charge.
5. Liable for: Chịu trách nhiệm theo pháp luật